And of the surah in which Friday is mentioned, which is all Medinan and consists of 11 verses, 180 words and 748 letters: 667
[62:1] And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said about the interpretation of Allah's saying (All that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth glorifieth Allah): '(All that is in the heavens) of created beings (and all that is in the earth) of creatures and living beings (glorifies Allah) prays to Allah; and it is also said this means: remembers Allah, (the Sovereign Lord) the Eternal whose sovereignty does not perish, (the Holy One) the Pure who has no son or partner, (the Mighty) the All-Conquering in His sovereignty and in His retribution against those who disbelieve in Him, (the Wise) in His command and decree, and He has decreed that none should be worshipped but Him.
[62:2] (He it is Who hath sent among the unlettered ones) the Arabs (a messenger of their own) of their own lineage, i.e. Muhammad (pbuh) (to recite unto them His revelations) the Qur'an which exposits commands and prohibitions (and to make them grow) and to cleanse them from idolatry by means of belief in Allah's divine Oneness; and it is also said this means: He cleanse them by means of them giving the poor-due from their wealth, and also by them repenting; in other words: He invites them to do so, (and to teach them the Scripture) i.e. the Qur'an (and Wisdom) the lawful and the unlawful; it is also said this means: knowledge and the admonitions of the Qur'an, (though heretofore) before the Prophet (pbuh) brought them the Qur'an (they) i.e. the Arabs (were indeed in error manifest) in manifest disbelief,
[62:3] (Along with others of them) of the Arabs; and it is also said: of the clients (who have not yet joined them) who have not joined the first Arabs. He says: they have not joined yet but they will join later. He says: Allah sent Muhammad (pbuh) as a Messenger to the Arabs as well as to the clients. (He is the Mighty) in retribution against those who disbelieve in Him, in His Scripture and in His Messenger Muhammad (pbuh) (the Wise) in His command and decree and He has decreed that none should be worshipped except Him.
[62:4] (That) which I have mentioned regarding prophethood, Scriptures and the confession of Allah's divine Oneness (is the bounty of Allah) is a bounty from Allah; (which He giveth unto) and honour with (whom he will) whoever deserves it. (Allah is of Infinite Bounty) by bestowing Islam and prophethood upon Muhammad (pbuh); and it is also said this means: by bestowing Islam upon the believers; and it is also said this means: by sending the Messenger and Scripture to His created beings.
[62:5] (The likeness) the description (of those who are entrusted with the Law of Moses) of those who were commanded to apply that which is in the Torah; i.e. they were commanded to reveal the traits and description of Muhammad (pbuh) in the Torah, (yet apply it not) yet act not upon what they were commanded, i.e. they did not reveal the traits and description of Muhammad (pbuh) in the Torah, (is as the likeness of the ass carrying books) the ass does not benefit from the books it carries and, similarly, the Jews will not benefit from the Torah. (Wretched is the likeness of folk who deny the revelations of Allah) Muhammad (pbuh) and the Qur'an. This refers to the Jews. (And Allah guideth not) to His religion (wrongdoing folk) the Jews; those who are to die following Judaism, as it is in Allah's pre-eternal knowledge.
[62:6] (Say) O Muhammad: (O ye who are Jews!) O you who have deviated from Islam and became Jews. These are the sons of Judah (If ye claim that you are favoured of Allah) if you claim you are the beloved of Allah (apart from (all) mankind) apart from Muhammad (pbuh) and his Companions, (then long for death) then ask for death (if ye are truthful) that you are favoured by Allah apart from Muhammad (pbuh) and his Companions. That is to say, say: O Allah! Make us die! For by Allah, there is not a single one of them who 668 says this except that he will die.
[62:7] However, they did not want to say it and ask for death. Upon which Allah said: (But they will never long for it) but the Jews will never ask for death (because of all that their own hands have sent before) because of that which they committed in their adherence to Judaism, (and Allah is Aware of evil-doers) He is aware that the Jews will not ask for death.
[62:8] (Say) unto them, O Muhammad: (Lo! the death from which ye shrink) the death which you dislike (will surely meet you) will inevitably befall you, (and afterward ye will be returned) in the Hereafter (unto the Knower of the invisible) i.e. that which is hidden from the slaves and will happen in the future (and the visible) that which the people know and has already happened, (and He will tell you what ye used to do) and say whether it is good or evil.
[62:9] (O ye who believe) in Muhammad (pbuh) and the Qur'an! (When the call is heard for the prayer) when the call to prayer calls you for the prayer (of the day of congregation, haste unto remembrance of Allah) haste to the sermon of the Imam and to praying with him (and leave your trading) and leave trading after the call to prayer. (That) listening to the sermon of the Imam and prayer (is better for you) than earning money and trading (if ye did but know) if you believe in the reward of Allah.
[62:10] Allah then gave them a dispensation, after imposing a prohibition upon them, in His saying (and leave your trading) and said: (And when the prayer is ended) when the Imam finishes the Friday prayer, (then disperse in the land) then leave the mosque if you wish (and seek of Allah's bounty) and seek Allah's provision if you wish, and this is the dispensation which came after prohibition. There is also another way of understanding this: when the Imam finishes the Friday prayer, disperse in the mosque and seek that which is better for you, i.e. the hidden knowledge, Oneness, non-attachment and reliance on Allah, (and remember Allah) with your tongues and hearts (much) in all circumstances, (that ye may be successful) that you may escape Allah's chastisement and wrath.
[62:11] (But when they) this refers to Dihyah Ibn Khalifah al-Kalbi (spy) hear the sound of the drum or (some merchandise or pastime they break away to it) they disperse and leave the mosque (and leave you standing) only eight men remained in the mosque; and it is also said: only 12 men and two women remained in the mosque. (Say) to them, O Muhammad: (That which Allah hath) of reward (is better) for you (than pastime) the sound of the drum (and than merchandise) of Dihyah al-Kalbi; He says: if you had stayed with your Prophet and prayed behind him and then made supplications before leaving the mosque, that would have been better for you in terms of reward and bestowal of honour from Allah, and much better than leaving the mosque without doing this, (and Allah is the Best of providers) Allah is the best of those who give; i.e. say this when the hypocrites come to you'.
And of the surah in which the Hypocrites are mentioned, which is all Medinan except for Allah's saying (They say: Surely, if we return to Medina the mightier will soon drive out the weaker…) which was revealed to the Prophet on the road of Banu'l-Mustaliq, and it consists of 11 verses, 180 words and 776 letters: